The Assassination of Heydrich

12. 04. 2011 | 12:34
Přečteno 4059 krát
If you are British there are two things you know about the Czechs and World War II: Munich and Heydrich. Chamberlain’s performance at Munich (and in Berlin) was a source of embarrassment, then and now. A municipal bureaucrat elevated somehow to the world stage, he was no statesman. Churchill called him a ‘pinhead’. Hitler said: ‘If I ever see that man again I will jump on his stomach’.

Someone Hitler did like was Reinhard Heydrich, the falsetto-voiced, feminine-hipped leader of the RHSA. If ever there was a living embodiment of Nazism in all its grisly horror, Heydrich was it. Next year is the 70th anniversary of his demise, so Euan and I decided to visit the locations most closely associated with his short but infamous reign as Bohemia and Moravia’s ‘Protector’.

We began with his house in Panenske Brezany. It’s still there, as are the gates out of which his Mercedes swung on that fateful day in 1942. One of his sons, killed in a road accident outside the house, is buried in the garden. The house is large but not grand – by no means the most impressive residence in Panenske Brezany. An odd choice for such a conceited man.

We followed his route, as best we could, towards Prague and Hradcany, where he intended to finish up a few administrative matters before flying to Berlin the next morning. We identified the wood where the parachutists watched his daily movements and where they initially intended to set up an ambush; this idea was abandoned because there were too many SS in the immediate area.

It is possible to locate the exact spot where the assassination took place. Although the road layout has changed somewhat (to ease the sharp curve where the parachutists made their move), there are buildings nearby which are still identical to their appearance in contemporary photographs, and the information board next to the memorial explains exactly where it all happened. We re-traced the steps of Gabcik as he ran, pursued by Heydrich’s driver, and tried to flee through the rear exit of a butcher’s shop. But there was no rear exit: Gabcik burst out of the front door again, shot the driver in the leg and then raced down the hill towards the city centre.

Next, the Karel Boromejsky Church, where the parachutists met their end after putting up an incredibly brave fight – surrounded, trapped, they fought until their ammunition ran out. The last bullets they kept for themselves. There was no real hope of escape, and there never had been.

Meanwhile the Germans began slaughtering thousands of Czechs in retribution. It didn’t really matter if these people had any connection with the assassination or not, but for those who did their captors reserved the most imaginative methods of torture. Executions took place in Mauthausen, Plotzensee, Pardubice... Lidice and its population were obliterated, Lezaky was left standing but its inhabitants were murdered (all except two children).

Our last stop on this tour, no longer triumphal but heartbreaking, was the Kobylisy shooting-ground, where over 500 Czechs were killed by firing-squads in the months following the assassination.

The execution site is a series of rectangular plots surrounded by embankments. It is easy to see exactly what happened: the men and women, some as young as 15, and many complete families, were brought in trucks to the entrance, marched into the designated rectangle, lined up and shot: no doubt methodically and in an orderly manner. Their bodies were then loaded up and taken away for incineration. We felt certain that these people would have met their fates nobly; they were dying for their country, literally. There are German accounts of the dignity they displayed. The names of the victims are recorded on a memorial giving the dates and the times of their deaths.

The planners of the assassination knew exactly what would happen afterwards. Disproportionate retaliation was a key principle in the Nazis’ domination of Europe, and Heydrich was both an author and an arch-exponent of the technique. No-one outside his close circle knew at the time that he intended to liquidate or re-settle (ie liquidate) the majority of Czechs after the war. It would be hard to think of any moral, ethical or political argument against the extinction of this ghastly man.

People argue today about whether or not the price paid was worth it. History records that the assassination of Heydrich gave the Nazi hierarchy its first real fright. It also endowed the Czech nation with heroic status among the Allies: the government in exile was recognised soon afterwards. But was it worth it? Only the thousands who lost their lives in the aftermath have a right to answer that question.






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Libor Stejskal, editor blogů (blogy@aktualne.cz)

Michal Macek napsal(a):

hallo

this hitlers "arian knight" was assasinated in kobylisy where i live now,there is also plase called "kobyliska strelnice" where nazis were executing "the elite of czech nation" after assasination of Heydrich,there was killed a lot of doctors,profesors,artists etc...there is memorial now....

heydrich was pretty sure about and his opinion was that czechs are week nation of servants - that is why he was using open car and he did not have any bodyguards except his driver - he was sure that chzech will not attck him...
12. 04. 2011 | 13:00

Pompeius Magnus napsal(a):

The hottest new is that Heydrich´s son has been offering his helpful hand in acquisition of EU grant to reconstruct the "schloss" in Panenske Brezany. After some ado in newspapers everything went hush-hush.
12. 04. 2011 | 13:10

cat napsal(a):

O la la Mr.Wheeler

Look at Bohemian partisans active

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CFoYkWulKOI
12. 04. 2011 | 13:44

Míval napsal(a):

Not many Czechs have ever made the same tour as you did.
Your last question is the one that will never be answered. The only possible solution to this dilemma is to make sure we deserve to live our lives enabled by all the blood and suffering of the past.
Sometimes I doubt, though.
12. 04. 2011 | 13:52

Cech napsal(a):

Heydrich's only miscalculation. Otherwise, he might work.
It's really a shame those lost lives.
Great effect on people dislike it did not.
Resistance to Hitler existed before and after Heydrich.
12. 04. 2011 | 13:53

Michal Macek napsal(a):

Cech

u reminded me the best sitcom "halo,halo!" :DD
12. 04. 2011 | 13:58

jhora napsal(a):

I am ashamed that ex-pat knows more about history of my own nation and amazed by the quality of your text. Thanks!
12. 04. 2011 | 14:19

milo napsal(a):

I would have never thought, that the "bloody magic" Heydrich has so efficiently represented would work again. But it does. Many are enchanted by SS myth. Nazi symbols in disguise can be seen again. Almost nobody talks about Endlosung. And Heydrich´s son visiting Panenské Břežany with his generous offer resembling calculated insult or naturally arrogant gesture. Maybe they should have asked him what happened to the Czech bus driver who has been transporting Heydrich´s family back to Reich so that they won´t be captured by Russians. He has never returned home. Incidentally it was the same bus driver who "killed" Heydrich´s son - the one buried in Břežany. The driver was released from Gestapo after three days. The boy literally ran under the bus.

Pitty we had to be reminded in English.
12. 04. 2011 | 14:31

Občan napsal(a):

Good afternoon, Mr. Wheeler,
do You know, that assassination of Heydrich was result of the brutal hijacking of Great Britain´s part on Czech asylum government?
Churchill clearly said to Beneš that if the Czechs fail to implement any large event, the Munich betrayal never will be declared as invalid.
And do You know that Czechoslovakia paid to the last button its entire holding in the armies of Great Britain and France?
That Czechoslovakia had to borrow ca 52 millions of Pounds from Great Britain to finance the Czechoslovak participation in the British and the French army? And that all this had Czechoslovakia to pay by part of its own golden treasure?

Many "thanks", dear (better said - expensive) allies...
12. 04. 2011 | 15:21

grőssling napsal(a):

Fando, nepiš to tak dlouhý. Tady neplatí, že na velikosti nezáleží.
12. 04. 2011 | 16:57

Petr napsal(a):

Was it worth it? An absolutely justifiable question. It is often claimed that the motivation for the assassination is based on the exiled-president Beneš's attempt to strenghten his and his government's position among the anti-German allies? It succeeded, but unfortunately, it was quite wasted through Beneš's not as good as possible relations with the American and British political representations, his weak attitudes towards Stalin and his post-war failure to oppose the communist thugs.

But there is another possible answer to the question. After completing his Prague job, Heydrich was to be promoted to the position of a protector of France. Based on the experience of Heydrich's skills as applied in the Czech protectorate, we may congratulate the French that they were spared this experience. And if an equivalent number of Frenchmen or other people of Europe were saved by killing Heydrich, than the Czech sacrifice was worth it. Each life is equal in its value. At least I would like to think that.
12. 04. 2011 | 17:13

grőssling napsal(a):

If the British know about the Czechs during the war only about Munich and Reinhard Heidrich, what they know about the Polish or Russian victims ?
Do they know, that the total number of fallen U.S. soldiers was the same as the number of all the Czech people who had died in Bohemia during the war?

II. WW was in Western Europe gentleman´s war against what happened in Russia.

Do people in Britain know about it ?
12. 04. 2011 | 17:26

camponotus napsal(a):

Hitler ve svém nyní zakázaném "veledíle" naprosto jasně formuluje úlohu, jakou měl sehrát Heydrich v našich dějinách.
Pro autora blogu - Heydrich? Never more!
12. 04. 2011 | 17:33

DF napsal(a):

When we talk about memorials, Mr Wheeler, one of the most sad and bitter was humiliation to the "Westerners" after ´48. Our nation cannot retrace it. In Czech "zápaďáci" you could hear all from ignorance to hate. Today only few of them live ... thus once a year I am visiting a small square at Vítězné náměstí. On the paving block "Dunkerque 1944/45" I stay to look around and thank to all Guys, but especially from 1st Czechoslovak Independent Armoured Brigade ...
12. 04. 2011 | 17:54

mb napsal(a):

Nice article, thank ya ...
12. 04. 2011 | 19:06

jihočech napsal(a):

Mr Wheeler,
Now it is probably out of place to ask such questions, was it or was it not worth. In war times one must act and must show the resistance against evil. In war there is only one question: is the action workable or not.

Unfortunately, we, as a small nation, were abandoned and left alone against evil. More fruitful question probably would be, what would happen if west countries showed their willingness and their military help from the beginning i.e. in 1938. Would Deutschland attack further countries? Would Hitler bomb London, etc. etc. ?
12. 04. 2011 | 19:26

Zacheus napsal(a):

To Franta Adamec. Ano, v roce 1926 bylo uděleno Benitu Mussolinimu československé státní vyznamení a to Řád bílého lva - za jeho kladný postoj k husitství a čs. legiím za první světové války ( viz též Právo ze dne 23. ledna 2010).

Proti barbarskému zničení Mariánského sloupu T.G. Masaryk, sám se prezentující jako humanista, nijak neprotestoval. Skutečnost, že osobně dlouhodobě prodléval v Rusku (Petrohradě) právě v době Velké říjnové revoluce v roce 1917 spolu s následnými výzvami k "neutralitě" ve vztahu k bolševikům, by také stála za bližší historické zkoumání.
12. 04. 2011 | 20:51

Duffy napsal(a):

Ugh!

Czechs, WWII, two things.
What about CZECH pilots in Britain??
13. 04. 2011 | 06:58

Duffy napsal(a):

addendum: Czechoslovak citizens in the RAF (pilots, aircrew, ..) 1940-..
13. 04. 2011 | 07:11

Michal Macek napsal(a):

Duffy

unfortunately they know more about polish pilots because they were much more than czechs....
13. 04. 2011 | 08:02

Pípa napsal(a):

When looking at this sad piece of the Czech history from a distance one can see that behind it was a big portion of incompetence and arrogance of the British top politicians toward the Czechoslovakia which at the final let to the big los of the Czech intelligence and great suffering of many Czech people.
13. 04. 2011 | 10:20

stejskal napsal(a):

That is correct, Mr. Macek (talking about numbers).

But contemporary British media (almost) always mentioned both Poles and Czechs when refering about foreigners during the Battle of Britain. Czech pilot where highly evaluated. The Polish 303. Sq and the Czech 310. Sq were amonged the top kills-scoring units during the BoB (the 303. was absolute top of that period but its biggest ace was Czech - Josef František, one of the five most succesfull fighters of the BoB). Brits were aware of all that and many still are.

Have a nice day.

Libor Stejskal
13. 04. 2011 | 11:02

Michal Macek napsal(a):

stejskal:

i was only thinkig why mr.Wheeler did not mentioned czech pilots also...

in Lomnice nad Popelkou where i am from we have memorial of col.Frantisek Truhlar who was hero of BoB and he dies when he was returning from great britain back home after war with his spitfire and he want to make a little show by flying under electric wires but he did not make this right and he had accident and he killed himself.Engine from his plane than goes throught wall of house nearby and it ends in the kitchen of one family.we had also meeting with his wife when i was as little boy in scout organization it was very interesting


http://www.lomnicenadpopelkou.cz/vismo/dokumenty2.asp?id_org=8675&id=1302&query=pamatnik

http://www.kvlhrvacovcerna.estranky.cz/fotoalbum/frantisek-truhlar-foto-60-vyroci-od-tragicke-smrti/
13. 04. 2011 | 13:54

stejskal napsal(a):

Yes, the story of col. Truhlar is sad. I am familiar with it.

I cannot speak on behalf of Adrian (let me call him by his first name we are good friends) but presume he meant this blog as a story about Heydrich and his assassination (that was his point, the opening of the story was just an opening of a story ;-)

Believe me he knows about WWWII planes a lot and definately doesn't intend to dump the role of Czech pilots during the WWII.

By the way he is the only person I know who was lucky enough to fly this beauty http://www.ml407.co.uk/pages/index.html ;-)

Libor Stejskal
13. 04. 2011 | 15:12

Michal Macek napsal(a):

stejskal

wow :) it is really beautifull plane.I understad,i ment the sentence in the beggining that people in UK know about Czechs in WWII two main things: heydrich and mnichov.i understand it that not very much people in UK knows that there were czechs
also in BoB because there were more polish pilots - of course i belive that mr.Wheeler knows a lot abot it......
13. 04. 2011 | 15:42

Michal Macek napsal(a):

it will be more comfortable for me to write in czech with you mr.Stejskal but is better to write in english for case that mr.Wheeler is reading..at least i will practice my still worse and worse english :) anyway i am looking forward to see the movie Lidice :)
13. 04. 2011 | 15:45

stejskal napsal(a):

;-) Adrian is not much proficient in reading Czech written texts, Mr. Macek and hereby I respect his potential right to take part in our conversation ;-) l.s.
13. 04. 2011 | 15:55

pavel2 napsal(a):

..proc se nezminit jak byli cesti piloti/hrdinove nasazujici zivoty pro britannii../kteri si platili i erarni ponozky/ po valce diskriminovani v Britannii a nesmeli zastavat dulezite funkce v britskych aeroliniich atd....o tom jak zapad sel Hitlerovi na ruku a pomahal kde se dalo...prodali nas k vyhlazeni i uranem ale meli stesti ze se Hitler s bombou zpozdil,...a zase nas prodali na Jalte a zase v unoru 48 a v srpnu 68 a v 89 nas rozkradli/protoze jsme pro ne vzdy jenom Slovani a automaticky podlidi a kolonie, nezajimalo je vubec ze demokraticka a kulturne a prumyslove vyspela zeme ve stredu Evropy//// jenom nas zlaty poklad ///...tak jako Filipiny a jine napr africke kolonie...ktere USA koupili od Spanelu !!!... prodaji i provaz na vlastni obeseni jako vzdy...
14. 04. 2011 | 08:32

Divobyj napsal(a):

Ano,Heidrycha jsme my,Češi opravdu rádi neměli.Reinhardův tatík nám před válkou,coby operní pěvec v Praze vcelku pěkně vyzpěvoval. Synáček se však rozhodl zazpívat nám na poněkud "inú notéčku"...Pravověrným čechům pak musely zlostí přímo skřípat zuby,když na hradě uděloval největším kolaborantům nejvyšší protektorátní vyznamenání-Řád sv.Václava. Takhle drze nám dokázal NASTAVIT ZRCADLO snad jen on.Jeho drzost vyvrcholila,když si dovolil nasadit na hlavu naši královskou korunu.Tím si nad sebou nejen symbolicky,ale i logicky podepsal ortel. Pokud jde o naše letce u RAF,zajímala by mne přesná čísla,kolik létalo poláků a kolik čechů a slováků.Neméně zajímavé by bylo následné porovnání s počtem slováků,létajících u Luftwafe. Za reakce předem dík!
14. 04. 2011 | 08:50

stejskal napsal(a):

Dobrý den, pane Divobyji

to je moje velké téma ;-)

Do 15. srpna 1940 se do Velké Británie dostalo z protektorátu celkem 904 pilotů (později během války se několik stovek dalších vojáků přeškolilo z jiných zbraní, dorazili z neokupovaných evropských zemí či z USA a Kanady, celkem sloužilo za celou válku u RAF bezmála dva tisíce bývalých čs. občanů, ne všichni ale byli piloti).

Slováků mezi nimi byl spíše jen zlomek (pár jich například ulétlo na Letovech Š-328 v roce 1939 do Polska, jiný se stal jedním z nejlepších mezi čs. piloty během WWII - Otto Smik). Důvodem byl fakt, že v době, kdy se dalo ještě utéct přes Polsko či Maďarsko, existovalo na Slovensku normální bojové letectvo tamního státu (což samozřejmě v protektorátu nebylo), takže řada slovenských pilotů mohla létat a čekala, co se bude dít.

Slovenský stát pak jako spojenec Říše vyslal na východní frontu Letku 13, která byla začleněna jako 13.(Slow.)/Jagdgeschwader 52 do Luftwaffe. Piloti, řádově několik desítek lidí, to samozřejmě dostali jako profesionální vojáci rozkazem. Letka zaznamenala na východní frontě značné úspěchy, potvrzeno je 210 sestřelů sovětských letatel (nejúspěšnější ze slovenských pilotů na východní frontě, Ján Režňák, pak bojoval v SNP na straně povstalců). V roce 1943 přelétlo několik slovenských pilotů k Sovětům a celá letka byla kvůli tomu stažena zpět na Slovensko, kde zasahovala proti spojeneckým bombardérům útočícím na cíle z Itálie.

V Luftwaffe sloužilo i pár dalších lidí z bývalého ČSR (např. Soukup, Bláha apod). Věšinou se ale jednalo o sudetské Němce se smíšených rodin.

Zajímavý je případ Čecha Augustina Přeučila, který uprchl přes Polsko do Anglii, létal u čs. perutě RAF a v roce 1941 přelétl s novým typem stíhačky Hurricane k nepříteli (podle všeho byl naverbován gestapem už před útěkem, pak do konce války pro něj pracoval v Praze, při výsleších zajatých čs. pilotů).

Jinak čs. piloti vytvořili v Británii čtyři bojové perutě (tři stíhací - z těch bylo později utvořeno samostatné tzv. exeterské křídlo, jednu bombardovací). Někteří létali ale také v britských či polských perutích, např. u 1., 303., 68. atd. (někteří čs. důstojníci dokonce veleli britským perutím, Maňák, Fajtl).

Poláků sloužilo v RAF na konci války cca. 19 400 (celkem tuším v 18 perutích). Tu zajímavost o českém pilotu Josefu Františkovi, který se během BoB stal proslulým jako člen 303. polské perutě, jsem psal už výše. Jinak na konci války měla polská armáda na Západě (mimo letectvo a námořnictvo) 165 000 lidí (celkem jich bylo téměř dvě stě tisíc, ale mnoho jich padlo), v námořnictvu pak 3000 můžů (hodně známý je třeba osud polské ponorky, která v roce 1939 unikla Němcům a pak doprovázela britské konvoje na Maltu).

Libor Stejskal
14. 04. 2011 | 12:11

Divobyj napsal(a):

Díky,p.Stejskale za to,že jste mi zase o píď rozšířil mé obzory.Člověk se učí celý život.Zřejmě také víte,že se slovenští letci na svých strojích (Me 109 a FW 190) též aktivně zůčastnili obrany proti spojeneckým náletům na Bratislavu a pod.Statistiky bohužel neznám.Vím také,že dle přímých svědků se pravidelná slovenská armáda zůčastňovala voj.operací na Ukrajině i v dnešním Rusku.Před časem jsem měl na toto téma na aktuálně.cz polemiku s člověkem,(nick Muromec)který tvrdil,že příslušníci pravidelné slovenské armády se nikdy aktivně nezapojili do bojů ve 2.svět.válce.(na straně Wermachtu,samozřejmě)Tento člověk se nakonec ukázal,jako obhájce presidenta Tisa.Vím,že je též věřící,a proto ode mne (zdarma) získal "nálepku" Klerofašista.Pardon,trochu jsem se rozohnil.Zdravím a přeji úspěšné bádání na tomto poli!
14. 04. 2011 | 12:41

Divobyj napsal(a):

Oh,pardon,o slov.letcích,zasahujících proti spojencům jste se též zmínil.Mea culpa...
14. 04. 2011 | 12:46

stejskal napsal(a):

Zapojili, pane Divobyji, samozřejmě že zapojili.

Už první fáze útoku na Sovětský svaz se zúčastnila tzv. Rychlá divize (celkem bezmála dva tisíce mužů). Pak Slovensko mobilizovalo osm ročníků a postavilo tzv. polní sbor. Ve finále z toho byl Armádní sbor (kolem 50 tisíc mužů pod velením gen. Ferdinanda Čatloše). Pikantní je, že je celkem brzy zase demobilizovali, protože většina z nich byli sedláci a na Slovensku začínaly žně. Na východní frontě tak zůstala jen ta Rychlá divize a Zajišťovací týlová divize (obě po cca. osmi tisících mužích.

A snad ještě jedna zajímavost nakonec: vůbec nejúspěšnějším čs. pilotem druhé světové války (co se počtu sesřelů týče) byl již zmiňovaný Ján Režňák. Jako jeden z mála pilotů celého světa stihl bojovat (a sestřelovat) na obou znepřátelených stranách (ještě se to povedlo pár Francouzům, Finům a Rusům z ROA).

Libor Stejskal
14. 04. 2011 | 13:12

Divobyj napsal(a):

Díky i za toto.Někdy si člověk říká,že nám ve škole vtloukali do hlav hromady nepodstatných hloupostí.Ta podstatná fakta však mnohdy přešli nenápadnou zmínkou,či ignorovali úplně.Proč jen jsou v KAŽDÉ době hnojeny mozky mladých smrdutým odvarem skutečnosti? Proč musí v každé době vše řídit pochybná ideologie? Jen ti,kteří bádají na vlastní pěst,mají šanci přiblížiti se pravdě. Buďte zdráv!
14. 04. 2011 | 14:15

adrian wheeler napsal(a):

Dear Contributors,

I am sorry to admit that my Czech is primitive at best, so I have been unable to follow the discussion about Czech aircrew flying with the RAF in WW2.

People like me (and Libor) who are interested in wartime aviation certainly know about the Czech flyers who escaped to the UK. One of their squadrons flew Wellingtons, as did my father.

My point, which was perhaps superficial, is that the majority of the UK population do not know anything about these airmen. I may have flattered this majority by saying that they know about Heydrich and Munich; I suspect most Brits today are only dimly aware that there ever was a Second World War. I am not joking.

As for the Polish pilots... people often remember things for peripheral reasons. It has been recorded more than once that the Poles were a 'problem' for the RAF command system because, once they caught sight of the enemy, they became totally unmanageable: they reverted to their own language and (so it is said) abandoned all discipline in their eagerness to get to grips with the Luftwaffe. For this reason they had to be segregated in their own squadrons, based - I believe - in and around Duxford.

I suspect that this story - which is quite attractive - caught the imagination of the Brits who take an interest in WW2 history, and may possibly account for the relatively high awareness of Polish RAF participation among them.

Thank you, everyone, for your comments on this narrative. I have learnt much from the discussion thread.

With best wishes,

Adrian
19. 04. 2011 | 14:41

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